• Key Excerpts
  • VIE Structure
  • VIE Risks
  • VIE Revenue
  1. Jingdong 360, Jiangsu Yuanzhou and Suqian Limao are our principal consolidated variable interest entities. Each of Jingdong 360 and Jiangsu Yuanzhou is 45% owned by Mr. Richard Qiangdong Liu, our chairman of board of directors and chief executive officer, 30% owned by Ms. Yayun Li, our employee, and 25% owned by Ms. Pang Zhang, also our employee. Suqian Limao is 62% owned by Mr. Richard Qiangdong Liu and 38% owned by Ms. Yayun Li. We effectively control these entities through contractual arrangements.
  2. Jingdong Century has two other subsidiaries, Beijing Jinghui Microcredit Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Jinghui Microcredit Co., Ltd., which engage in in online microcredit businesses.
  3. The other shareholders of JD Finance Holdco include a limited partnership holding equity interest of JD Finance Holdco for purposes of its share incentive plan and a group of investors that made their investment in March 2016.

Key excerpts from filing(s) - related to VIEs

Foreign ownership of certain of our businesses including value-added telecommunication services is subject to restrictions under current PRC laws and regulations. For example, foreign investors are not allowed to own more than 50% of the equity interests in a value-added telecommunication service provider (excluding e-commerce) and any such foreign investor must have experience in providing value-added telecommunications services overseas and maintain a good track record, and foreign investors may engage in the distribution of audio and video products in China only in the form of contractual joint ventures between foreign and Chinese investors
In addition, foreign investors may engage in air freight transport agency services in China only in the form of equity or contractual joint ventures between foreign and Chinese investors.
We are a Cayman Islands company and our PRC subsidiaries Jingdong Century, Star East, Jingbangda and Shanghai Shengdayuan are considered foreign-invested enterprises. Accordingly, none of these PRC subsidiaries is eligible to provide value-added telecommunication services or sell audio and video products in China or provide certain other restricted services related to our businesses, such as air freight transport agency services.
As a result, we conduct or will conduct such business activities through our variable interest entities in PRC, including Jingdong 360 and Jiangsu Yuanzhou. Jingdong 360 holds our ICP license as an internet information provider. Jiangsu Yuanzhou primarily conducts the sale of books and audio and video products.
Jingdong 360, Jiangsu Yuanzhou and all of our other variable interest entities in PRC other than Suqian Limao are 45% owned by Mr. Richard Qiangdong Liu, our chairman and chief executive officer, 30% owned by Ms. Yayun Li, our employee, and 25% owned by Ms. Pang Zhang, also our employee. Suqian Limao is 62% owned by Mr. Richard Qiangdong Liu, and 38% owned by Ms. Yayun Li. Mr. Liu, Ms. Li and Ms. Zhang are PRC citizens.
We have relied and expect to continue to rely on contractual arrangements with Jingdong 360 and its shareholders to hold our ICP license as an internet information provider, contractual arrangements with Jiangsu Yuanzhou and its shareholders to conduct the sale of books and audio and video products and contractual arrangements with other variable interest entities for the relevant restricted businesses.
If we had direct ownership of our variable interest entities, we would be able to exercise our rights as a shareholder to effect changes in the board of directors of those entities, which in turn could effect changes, subject to any applicable fiduciary obligations, at the management level.
Our variable interest entities hold our necessary licenses and permits including ICP license, online payment license and Aviation Transport Sales Agency Certificate and conduct our sales of books and audio and video products (including publication of e-books and online audio and video products). In the event we are unable to enforce our contractual arrangements, we may not be able to exert effective control over our variable interest entities, and our ability to conduct these businesses may be negatively affected.
The shareholders of our variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us. These shareholders may breach, or cause our variable interest entities to breach, or refuse to renew, the existing contractual arrangements we have with them and our variable interest entities, which would have a material and adverse effect on our ability to effectively control our variable interest entities and receive substantially all the economic benefits from them.
As of the date of this annual report, over 50% of the voting power of our issued and outstanding share capital is controlled by PRC nationals. However, the draft Foreign Investment Law has not taken a position on what actions are required to be taken with respect to the existing companies with a VIE structure
In the opinion of management, the Group’s relevant PRC subsidiaries’ Contractual Arrangements with the VIEs and the Nominee Shareholders are in compliance with PRC laws and regulations and are legally binding and enforceable.

Risks identified in filing(s) - related to VIEs

If the PRC government deems that the contractual arrangements in relation to our variable interest entities do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations.
We rely on contractual arrangements with our variable interest entities and their shareholders for a portion of our business operations, which may not be as effective as direct ownership in providing operational control.
Any failure by our variable interest entities or their shareholders to perform their obligations under our contractual arrangements with them would have a material and adverse effect on our business.
The shareholders of our variable interest entities may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
We may rely on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have, and any limitation on the ability of our PRC subsidiaries to make payments to us could have a material and adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.
PRC regulation of loans to and direct investment in PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may delay or prevent us from making loans to our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entities or making additional capital contributions to our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.
Contractual arrangements in relation to our variable interest entities may be subject to scrutiny by the PRC tax authorities and they may determine that we or our PRC variable interest entities owe additional taxes, which could negatively affect our financial condition and the value of your investment.
Substantial uncertainties exist with respect to the enactment timetable, interpretation and implementation of the draft PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.
Year Total Revenue VIEs Revenue Contribution of VIEs %
RMB (in millions)
2014 115,002 3,431 2.98%
2015 181,275 4,637 2.56%
2016 260,122 8,444 3.25%

Ownership and Voting power details

Related Blog Entries

Source(s)